Con general, these researches have revealed the close relationship between communities from Teopancazco and the Gulf Coast

The evidence from the Teopancazco excavations indicates that there was an important link between Teopancazco funziona gaydar and the Gulf Coast of Mexico (Manzanilla, 2011). Many archaeological materials recovered at the site, such as ornaments and garments, were produced with feathers, shells and other materials brought from the Gulf Coast. Mediante additif, isotopic studies of human skeletons recovered at Teopancazco indicate the presence of people from the Gulf settore, and from sites located along the corridor running from Teotihuacan to the coast (Manzanilla, 2012).

Sopra particular, the results obtained by Carro et al. (2013) suggested that people travelling from the coast esatto Teopancazco took glass shards from an Altotonga outcrop with them. The reason for using this material is still unknown. It is suggested that either they were aware of its properties or they used the material for symbolic reasons.

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful puro L. Noia, J. Blancas, R. De Luca, L. Manzanilla, Per. Ortiz, Per. Pastrana and Verso. Pecci whose constructive comments and suggestions contributed esatto the quality of the manuscript.

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Hence, this chapter will show that the study of provenance is verso powerful tool for testing models regarding prehistoric trades, people’s interactions and access sicuro resources.

The Lipari obsidian has verso composition varying from alkali-rhyolite to rhyolite with calcalkaline affinity; these geochemical characteristics led scientists sicuro correlate Aeolian volcanism with the subduction of the Ionian Plate below the Calabrian Arc (Beccaluva et al., 1982; Ellam et al., 1989). Nevertheless, recent works have suggested that the geochemical evolution of the magmas could reflect the transition from collisional volcanism to post-collisional/rifting volcanism (Crisci et al., 1991; De Astis et al., 2003).

Francaviglia (1988) distinguished five groups of Pantelleria obsidian, which are characterized by different chemical compositions: three of the groups are from “vertically differentiated” mines exposed at Balata dei Turchi; the other two are mediante Gelkhamar and Pozza di Bellezza. Chemical analyses of artefacts from Pantelleria, Fango and Sicily showed that the upper Balata dei Turchi mine (i.ancora. the most recent) was the main source of raw material, but the Gelkhamar obsidian black pitch was also used. Finally, the lower (i.e. at sea level) obsidian from Balata dei Turchi was not used for tool-making, at least during the Bronze Age (Francaviglia, 1988; Francaviglia and Piperno, 1987; Tykot, 1995, 1996; Tykot et al., 2013).

The TMVB is per volcanic broderie built on the southern edge of the North American plate. It runs east-west across Mexico (Ferrari et al., 1999) and was formed per response sicuro subduction of the Cocos plate along the Acapulco trench beginning per the Middle Miocene (Ferrari et al., 1999). The TMVB volcanism is characterized by a wide range of chemical compositions. The emplacement of large volumes of rhyolites and minor ignimbrites occurred during the second magmatic episode between 8 and 5 Pero (Ferrari et al., 1999).

3D scatterplot of the logarithms of the concentrations of Mn, Rb and Sr, showing the separation into four groups for the archaeological obsidian samples studied by Gazzola et al. (2010).

The acquisition of raw materials implies an accurate knowledge of the territory, and the movement needed puro obtain them must be part of verso network of routes also used for the acquisition of other resources required by the group. Con the particular case of Teotihuacan, the results obtained by Gazzola et al. (2010) and by Carballo et al. (2007) support the timore that most of the obsidian artefacts found sopra that site were made of obsidian derived from the Otumba and Sierra de Pachuca sources. However, the results also indicate that some obsidian was obtained from other sources, such as Paredon (Puebla). Considering the presence of obsidian finds from other sources located on the way puro Veracruz, Gazzola et al. (2010) suggested an early relationship with other communities inhabiting the Central Portavivande, and an exchange of resources among these regions. Per addenda, they hypothesize the control exerted by Teotihuacanos on other sources, such as Zacualtipan and Paredon.